git-secret:在 Git 存储库中加密和存储密钥(下)

在之前的文章中(点击此处查看上一篇文章),我们了解了如何识别包含密钥的文件,将密钥添加到 .gitignore ,通过 git-secret 进行加密,以及将加密文件提交到存储库。在本篇文章中,将带你了解如何在 Docker 容器中设置 git-secretgpg,通过 Makefile recipe 为不同的场景创建工作流。

Makefile Adjustment

git-secretgpg 指令添加到 Makefile 中 .make/01-00-application-setup.mk

# File: .make/01-00-application-setup.mk

#...

# gpg

DEFAULT_SECRET_GPG_KEY?=secret.gpg
DEFAULT_PUBLIC_GPG_KEYS?=.dev/gpg-keys/*

.PHONY: gpg
gpg: ## Run gpg commands. Specify the command e.g. via ARGS="--list-keys"
    $(EXECUTE_IN_APPLICATION_CONTAINER) gpg $(ARGS)

.PHONY: gpg-export-public-key
gpg-export-public-key: ## Export a gpg public key e.g. via EMAIL="john.doe@example.com" PATH=".dev/gpg-keys/john-public.gpg"
    @$(if $(PATH),,$(error PATH is undefined))
    @$(if $(EMAIL),,$(error EMAIL is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg ARGS="gpg --armor --export $(EMAIL) > $(PATH)"

.PHONY: gpg-export-private-key
gpg-export-private-key: ## Export a gpg private key e.g. via EMAIL="john.doe@example.com" PATH="secret.gpg"
    @$(if $(PATH),,$(error PATH is undefined))
    @$(if $(EMAIL),,$(error EMAIL is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg ARGS="--output $(PATH) --armor --export-secret-key $(EMAIL)"

.PHONY: gpg-import
gpg-import: ## Import a gpg key file e.g. via GPG_KEY_FILES="/path/to/file /path/to/file2"
    @$(if $(GPG_KEY_FILES),,$(error GPG_KEY_FILES is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg ARGS="--import --batch --yes --pinentry-mode loopback $(GPG_KEY_FILES)"

.PHONY: gpg-import-default-secret-key
gpg-import-default-secret-key: ## Import the default secret key
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg-import GPG_KEY_FILES="$(DEFAULT_SECRET_GPG_KEY)"

.PHONY: gpg-import-default-public-keys
gpg-import-default-public-keys: ## Import the default public keys
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg-import GPG_KEY_FILES="$(DEFAULT_PUBLIC_GPG_KEYS)" 

.PHONY: gpg-init
gpg-init: gpg-import-default-secret-key gpg-import-default-public-keys ## Initialize gpg in the container, i.e. import all public and private keys

# git-secret

.PHONY: git-secret
git-secret: ## Run git-secret commands. Specify the command e.g. via ARGS="hide"
    $(EXECUTE_IN_APPLICATION_CONTAINER) git-secret $(ARGS)

.PHONY: secret-init
secret-init: ## Initialize git-secret in the repository via git-secret init
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="init"

.PHONY: secret-init-gpg-socket-config
secret-init-gpg-socket-config: ## Initialize the config files to change the gpg socket locations
    echo "%Assuan%" > .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent
    echo "socket=/tmp/S.gpg-agent" >> .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent
    echo "%Assuan%" > .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent.ssh
    echo "socket=/tmp/S.gpg-agent.ssh" >> .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent.ssh
    echo "extra-socket /tmp/S.gpg-agent.extra" > .gitsecret/keys/gpg-agent.conf
    echo "browser-socket /tmp/S.gpg-agent.browser" >> .gitsecret/keys/gpg-agent.conf

.PHONY: secret-encrypt
secret-encrypt: ## Decrypt secret files via git-secret hide
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="hide"

.PHONY: secret-decrypt
secret-decrypt: ## Decrypt secret files via git-secret reveal -f
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="reveal -f" 

.PHONY: secret-decrypt-with-password
secret-decrypt-with-password: ## Decrypt secret files using a password for gpg via git-secret reveal -f -p $(GPG_PASSWORD)
    @$(if $(GPG_PASSWORD),,$(error GPG_PASSWORD is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="reveal -f -p $(GPG_PASSWORD)" 

.PHONY: secret-add
secret-add: ## Add a file to git secret via git-secret add $FILE
    @$(if $(FILE),,$(error FILE is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="add $(FILE)"

.PHONY: secret-cat
secret-cat: ## Show the contents of file to git secret via git-secret cat $FILE
    @$(if $(FILE),,$(error FILE is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="cat $(FILE)"

.PHONY: secret-list
secret-list: ## List all files added to git secret git-secret list
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="list"

.PHONY: secret-remove
secret-remove: ## Remove a file from git secret via git-secret remove $FILE
    @$(if $(FILE),,$(error FILE is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="remove $(FILE)"

.PHONY: secret-add-user
secret-add-user: ## Remove a user from git secret via git-secret tell $EMAIL
    @$(if $(EMAIL),,$(error EMAIL is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="tell $(EMAIL)"

.PHONY: secret-show-users
secret-show-users: ## Show all users that have access to git secret via git-secret whoknows
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="whoknows"

.PHONY: secret-remove-user
secret-remove-user: ## Remove a user from git secret via git-secret killperson $EMAIL
    @$(if $(EMAIL),,$(error EMAIL is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="killperson $(EMAIL)"

.PHONY: secret-diff
secret-diff: ## Show the diff between the content of encrypted and decrypted files via git-secret changes
    "$(MAKE)" -s git-secret ARGS="changes"

工作流程

使用 git-secret 非常简单:

  • 初始化 git-secret
  • 添加所有用户。
  • 添加所有机密文件并确保这些文件通过 .gitignore 被忽略。
  • 加密文件。
  • 如果团队其他成员对文件进行更改,则需要解密文件→更新文件→再次提交加密文件
  • 如果对解密的文件进行更改,修改完需要再次重新进行加密。

下面的“流程挑战”部分展示了一些在可能遇到的问题,“场景”部分将会展示一些常见场景的具体示例。

流程中的挑战

从流程的角度,一起来看看在过程中可能遇到的一些困难和挑战,以及如何处理解决。

更新机密

更新机密时,请确保先解密文件,从而避免使用可能仍存在本地的旧文件。可以通过检查最新的 main 分支并运行 git secret reveal,来获得最新版本的机密文件。也可以使用 post-merge Git hook 自动执行此操作,不过要注意覆盖本地机密文件的风险哦。

代码审查和合并冲突

由于无法对加密文件进行很好的区分,因此当涉及机密时代码审查变得更加困难。这是可以尝试使用 GitLab 进行审查,首先检查 .gitsecret/paths/mapping.cfg 文件的差异,在 UI 中查看哪些文件已更改。

此外,可以根据以下步骤来查看:

  • 检查 main 分支。
  • 通过 git secret reveal -f 解密文件
  • 查看 feature-branch.
  • 运行 git secret changes 来查看 main 的解密文件和feature-branch 中加密文件之间的差异。

当多个团队成员需要同时修改不同分支上的机密文件时,情况会更加复杂一些,因为Git 无法智能处理增量更新。

本地 git-secret 和 gpg 设置

当团队的所有人员将 git-secret 安装在本地,并且使用他们自己的 gpg 密钥,这也意味着团队的成本会随之增加,原因如下:

  • 新加入开发团队的人员需要:
    • 本地安装 git-secret(*)
    • 在本地安装和设置 gpg(*)
    • 创建 gpg 密钥对
  • 必须由所有其他团队成员 (*) 添加公钥。
  • 必须通过添加密钥的用户 git secret tell
  • 机密需要重新加密。

对于离开团队的人员:

  • 所有其他团队成员(*) 都需要删除公钥。
  • 通过 git secret killperson 删除密钥的用户。
  • 机密需要重新加密。

另外,需要确保 git-secretgpg 版本保持最新,避免遇到任何兼容性问题。作为替代方案,也可以通过 Docker 处理,而上述步骤中标注(*) 则可以省去,也就是不需要设置本地的 git-secretgpg

为了更加便捷,将存储库中每个开发人员的公共 gpg 密钥放在 .dev/gpg-keys/,而私钥命名为 secret.gpg 并放在代码库的根目录中。

在此设置中,secret.gpg 还必须被添加到 .gitignore 文件中。

# File: .gitignore
#...
vendor/
secret.gpg

然后可以使用 make 目标简化导入:

# gpg

DEFAULT_SECRET_GPG_KEY?=secret.gpg
DEFAULT_PUBLIC_GPG_KEYS?=.dev/gpg-keys/*

.PHONY: gpg
gpg: ## Run gpg commands. Specify the command e.g. via ARGS="--list-keys"
    $(EXECUTE_IN_APPLICATION_CONTAINER) gpg $(ARGS)

.PHONY: gpg-import
gpg-import: ## Import a gpg key file e.g. via GPG_KEY_FILES="/path/to/file /path/to/file2"
    @$(if $(GPG_KEY_FILES),,$(error GPG_KEY_FILES is undefined))
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg ARGS="--import --batch --yes --pinentry-mode loopback $(GPG_KEY_FILES)"

.PHONY: gpg-import-default-secret-key
gpg-import-default-secret-key: ## Import the default secret key
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg-import GPG_KEY_FILES="$(DEFAULT_SECRET_GPG_KEY)"

.PHONY: gpg-import-default-public-keys
gpg-import-default-public-keys: ## Import the default public keys
    "$(MAKE)" -s gpg-import GPG_KEY_FILES="$(DEFAULT_PUBLIC_GPG_KEYS)" 

.PHONY: gpg-init
gpg-init: gpg-import-default-secret-key gpg-import-default-public-keys ## Initialize gpg in the container, i.e. import all public and private keys

上述操作需要在容器启动后运行一次。

场景

先假设以下这些条件:

  • 已检查过 Git 存储库。git checkout part-6-git-secret-encrypt-repository-docker
  • 没有正在运行的 Docker 容器。make docker-down
  • 已删除现有 git-secret 文件夹、中的密钥.dev/gpg-keyssecret.gpg密钥和 passwords.*文件。rm -rf .gitsecret/ .dev/gpg-keys/* secret.gpg passwords.*

gpg 密钥的初始设置

不幸的是,我没有找到通过makedocker创建和导出gpg密钥的方法。你需要交互式地运行这些命令,或者传递一个带换行的字符串给它。这两件事在makedocker中都复杂得可怕。因此,你需要登录到应用程序的容器中,并在那里直接运行这些命令。这不是很简单,但无论如何,这只需要在一个新的开发人员入职时做一次。

密钥导出到 secret.gpg,公钥导出到 gp.dev/gpg-keys/alice-public.gpg

# start the docker setup
make docker-up

# log into the container ('winpty' is only required on Windows)
winpty docker exec -ti dofroscra_local-application-1 bash

# export key pair
name="Alice Doe"
email="alice@example.com"
gpg --batch --gen-key 
$ make docker-up
ENV=local TAG=latest DOCKER_REGISTRY=docker.io DOCKER_NAMESPACE=dofroscra APP_USER_NAME=application APP_GROUP_NAME=application docker compose -p dofroscra_local --env-file ./.docker/.env -f ./.docker/docker-compose/docker-compose.yml -f ./.docker/docker-compose/docker-compose.local.yml up -d
Container dofroscra_local-application-1  Created
...
Container dofroscra_local-application-1  Started
$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE                                COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS                NAMES
...
95f740607586   dofroscra/application-local:latest   "/usr/sbin/sshd -D"      21 minutes ago   Up 21 minutes   0.0.0.0:2222->22/tcp dofroscra_local-application-1

$ winpty docker exec -ti dofroscra_local-application-1 bash
root:/var/www/app# name="Alice Doe"
root:/var/www/app# email="alice@example.com"
gpg --batch --gen-key  Key-Length: 2048
> Subkey-Type: 1
> Subkey-Length: 2048
> Name-Real: $name
> Name-Email: $email
> Expire-Date: 0
> %no-protection
> EOF
gpg: directory '/root/.gnupg' created
gpg: keybox '/root/.gnupg/pubring.kbx' created
gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key BBBE654440E720C1 marked as ultimately trusted
gpg: directory '/root/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d' created
gpg: revocation certificate stored as '/root/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/225C736E0E70AC222C072B70BBBE654440E720C1.rev'

root:/var/www/app# gpg --output secret.gpg --armor --export-secret-key $email
root:/var/www/app# head secret.gpg
-----BEGIN PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK-----
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root:/var/www/app# gpg --armor --export $email > .dev/gpg-keys/alice-public.gpg
root:/var/www/app# head .dev/gpg-keys/alice-public.gpg
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
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至此 alice@example.com 就有了一个新机密和私钥,将其导出到 secret.gpg.dev/gpg-keys/alice-public.gpg。剩下的命令现在可以直接在application 容器外的主机上运行。

git-secret 的初始设置

现在来将 git-secret 引入一个新的代码库,然后运行以下命令。

初始化 git-secret

make secret-init$ make secret-init
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="init";
git-secret: init created: '/var/www/app/.gitsecret/'

应用 gpg 对共享目录进行修复:

$ make secret-init-gpg-socket-config$ make secret-init-gpg-socket-config
echo "%Assuan%" > .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent
echo "socket=/tmp/S.gpg-agent" >> .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent
echo "%Assuan%" > .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent.ssh
echo "socket=/tmp/S.gpg-agent.ssh" >> .gitsecret/keys/S.gpg-agent.ssh
echo "extra-socket /tmp/S.gpg-agent.extra" > .gitsecret/keys/gpg-agent.conf
echo "browser-socket /tmp/S.gpg-agent.browser" >> .gitsecret/keys/gpg-agent.conf

容器启动后初始化 gpg

重启容器后,需要初始化 gpg 也就是导入公钥 .dev/gpg-keys/* 和导入私钥 Secret.gpg,不然就无法对文件进行加密和解密。

make gpg-init$ make gpg-init
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s gpg-import GPG_KEY_FILES="secret.gpg"
gpg: directory '/home/application/.gnupg' created
gpg: keybox '/home/application/.gnupg/pubring.kbx' created
gpg: /home/application/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key BBBE654440E720C1: public key "Alice Doe " imported
gpg: key BBBE654440E720C1: secret key imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg:       secret keys read: 1
gpg:   secret keys imported: 1
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s gpg-import GPG_KEY_FILES=".dev/gpg-keys/*"
gpg: key BBBE654440E720C1: "Alice Doe " not changed
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:              unchanged: 1

添加新成员

接下来一起看看如何将新成员加入到 git-secret

make secret-add-user EMAIL="alice@example.com"$ make secret-add-user EMAIL="alice@example.com"
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="tell alice@example.com"
git-secret: done. alice@example.com added as user(s) who know the secret.

验证是否通过:

make secret-show-users$ make secret-show-users
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="whoknows"
alice@example.com

添加和加密文件

来添加一个新的加密文件 secret_password.txt,创建以下文件:

echo "my_new_secret_password" > secret_password.txt

将其添加到 .gitignore

echo "secret_password.txt" >> .gitignore

将其添加到 git-secret

make secret-add FILE="secret_password.txt"$ make secret-add FILE="secret_password.txt"
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="add secret_password.txt"
git-secret: 1 item(s) added.

加密所有文件:

make secret-encrypt$ make secret-encrypt
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="hide"
git-secret: done. 1 of 1 files are hidden.$ ls secret_password.txt.secret
secret_password.txt.secret

解密文件

首先移除 secret_password.txt文件,请运行:

rm secret_password.txt$ rm secret_password.txt$ ls secret_password.txt
ls: cannot access 'secret_password.txt': No such file or directory

然后进行解密:

make secret-decrypt$ make secret-decrypt
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="reveal -f"
git-secret: done. 1 of 1 files are revealed.$ cat secret_password.txt
my_new_secret_password

注意:如果 gpg 密钥受密码保护(假设密码是 123456),请运行以下命令:

make secret-decrypt-with-password GPG_PASSWORD=123456

此外,还可以将 GPG_PASSWORD 变量加入.make/.env 文件作为本地默认值,这样就不用每次都指定该值,然后可以简单地运行以下命令而不传递 GPG_PASSWORD

make secret-decrypt-with-password

删除文件

可以通过以下方式解密文件:移除之前添加的 secret-password.txt

make secret-remove FILE="secret_password.txt"$ make secret-remove FILE="secret_password.txt"
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="remove secret_password.txt"
git-secret: removed from index.
git-secret: ensure that files: [secret_password.txt] are now not ignored.

注意:这里既不会自动删除 secret_password.txt 文件,也不会自动删除 secret_password.txt.secret 文件

$ ls -l | grep secret_password.txt 
-rw-r--r-- 1 Pascal 197121 3 月 31 日 19 日 14:03 secret_password.txt 
-rw-r--r-- 1 Pascal 197121 358 3 月 31 日 14:02 secret_password.txt.secret

即使加密的 secret_password.txt 文件仍然存在,也不会被解密:

$ make secret-decrypt
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="reveal -f"
git-secret: done. 0 of 0 files are revealed.

移除团队成员

移除团队成员需要通过以下步骤:

make secret-remove-user EMAIL="alice@example.com"$ make secret-remove-user EMAIL="alice@example.com"
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="killperson alice@example.com"
git-secret: removed keys.
git-secret: now [alice@example.com] do not have an access to the repository.
git-secret: make sure to hide the existing secrets again.

如果团队中还有其他成员留下,需要确保再次加密机密文件:

make secret-encrypt

如果该组已移除全部成员,git-secret 就会报错:

$ make secret-decrypt
"C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/make" -s git-secret ARGS="reveal -f"
git-secret: abort: no public keys for users found. run 'git secret tell email@address'.
make[1]: *** [.make/01-00-application-setup.mk:57: git-secret] Error 1
make: *** [.make/01-00-application-setup.mk:69: secret-decrypt] Error 2

恭喜你~现在你可以加密和解密机密文件,并存储在 Git 存储库中啦!

文章来源于互联网:git-secret:在 Git 存储库中加密和存储密钥(下)

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