rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定 DNS原理 bind正向解析

双网卡绑定

绑定多张网卡成为逻辑口,从而实现链路冗余,以及数据流量的负载均衡

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图

1.创建team口

[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection add type team con-name team0 ifname team0  team.runner activebackup ipv4.method manual ipv4.address 192.168.0.200/24
Connection 'team0' (3eb2f94e-3653-4aa2-a3f1-0826a02b26d1) successfully added.

创建了链接
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection show
NAME                UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE 
team0               e4a115a2-5444-4d16-975b-5d1fc62a2503  team      team0  

创建了链接配置文件
[root@servera ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-team0 
TEAM_CONFIG="{ "runner": { "name": "activebackup" } }"
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=team0
UUID=e4a115a2-5444-4d16-975b-5d1fc62a2503
DEVICE=team0
ONBOOT=yes
DEVICETYPE=Team
[root@servera ~]# 

创建了team0设备
[root@servera ~]# nmcli device 
DEVICE  TYPE      STATE                                  CONNECTION         
eth0    ethernet  connected                              Wired connection 1 
eth1    ethernet  connected                              eth1               
team0   team      [connecting (getting IP configuration)]  team0 
team逻辑口一直无法获取dhcp,那么他会自动消失
如果是manual则无视此问题
也可以使用modify修改     team0  

2.把物理网卡加入team中

建议删除网卡关联的旧链接
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection delete 'Wired connection 2'
Connection 'Wired connection 2' (8f9a19e2-d15a-3772-b71d-320159e6753d) successfully deleted.
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection delete 'eth1' 
Connection 'eth1' (1e60e42a-10e8-4a27-ba92-c5698ae322c1) successfully deleted.
[root@servera ~]# 

添加新链接,绑定逻辑接口
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection add type ethernet slave-type team con-name eth1   ifname  eth1  master team0
Connection 'eth1' (17ef3f96-7b48-42a4-a0bd-11341eaec928) successfully added.
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection add type ethernet slave-type team con-name eth2   ifname  eth2  master team0
Connection 'eth2' (18fc1852-1b11-4f98-89a1-fb898f5e6bb2) successfully added.
[root@servera ~]# 

[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection show
NAME                UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE 
mqy                 bffa0efd-a0c4-40c6-ad27-ff42ccd5dc1c  ethernet  eth1   
team0               e4a115a2-5444-4d16-975b-5d1fc62a2503  team      team0  
Wired connection 1  4ae4bb9e-8f2d-3774-95f8-868d74edcc3c  ethernet  eth0   
eth2                18fc1852-1b11-4f98-89a1-fb898f5e6bb2  ethernet  eth2   
eth1                17ef3f96-7b48-42a4-a0bd-11341eaec928  ethernet  --    

[root@servera ~]# nmcli device 
DEVICE  TYPE      STATE      CONNECTION         
eth0    ethernet  connected  Wired connection 1 
team0   team      connected  team0              
eth1    ethernet  connected  eth1               
eth2    ethernet  connected  eth2   

如果team0无ip地址,则使用nmcli  connection  down   然后  up

7: team0:  mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether 52:54:00:02:fa:0a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.0.200/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global noprefixroute team0
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

3: eth1:  mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel [master team0 state UP] group default qlen 1000
link/ether 52:54:00:02:fa:0a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
4: eth2:  mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel [master team0 state UP] group default qlen 1000

需要注意几个点
物理网卡不需要配置ip地址,所有的ip地址都在team口配置
只有当物理接口存在up的情况下team口才会up

3.查看team配置网络信息

查看team信息

[root@servera ~]# teamdctl team0 state
setup:
runner: activebackup
ports:
eth1
    link watches:
    link summary: up
    instance[link_watch_0]:
        name: ethtool   使用ethtool来监控
        link: up
        down count: 0
eth2
    link watches:
    link summary: up
    instance[link_watch_0]:
        name: ethtool
        link: up
        down count: 0
runner:
active port: eth1

查看配置信息

[root@servera ~]# teamdctl team0 config dump
{
    "device": "team0",
    "mcast_rejoin": {
        "count": 1
    },
    "notify_peers": {
        "count": 1
    },
    "ports": {
        "eth1": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        },
        "eth2": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        }
    },
    "runner": {
        "name": "activebackup"
    }
}
[root@servera ~]# 

team0  config  dump  noport#不要接口信息

直接查看接口状态
[root@servera ~]# teamnl team0 ports
4: eth2: up 4294967295Mbit FD 
3: eth1: up 4294967295Mbit FD 

team口的网卡配置文件

[root@servera ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-team0 
TEAM_CONFIG="{ "runner": { "name": "activebackup" } }"
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
IPADDR=192.168.0.200
PREFIX=24
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=team0
UUID=3eb2f94e-3653-4aa2-a3f1-0826a02b26d1
DEVICE=team0
ONBOOT=yes
DEVICETYPE=Team
[root@servera ~]# 

[root@servera ~]# teamdctl team0 config dump  > t1.json
[root@servera ~]# vi t1.json 
"runner": {
        "name": "roundrobin"
    }
}
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection modify team0 team.config t1.json
[root@servera ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-team0 
TEAM_CONFIG=$'{n    "device": "team0",n    "mcast_rejoin": {n        "count": 1n    },n    "notify_peers": {n        "count": 1n    },n    "ports": {n        "eth1": {n            "link_watch": {n                "name": "ethtool"n            }n        },n        "eth2": {n            "link_watch": {n                "name": "ethtool"n            }n        }n    },n    "runner": {n        "name": "roundrobin"n    }n}n'
PROXY_METHOD=none

第二种改法

[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection modify team0 team.runner  activebackup 
[root@servera ~]# nmcli connection up team0 
Connection successfully activated (master waiting for slaves) (D-Bus active path: /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/27)
[root@servera ~]# 

[root@servera ~]# teamdctl team0 config dump
{
    "device": "team0",
    "mcast_rejoin": {
        "count": 1
    },
    "notify_peers": {
        "count": 1
    },
    "ports": {
        "eth1": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        },
        "eth2": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        }
    },
    "runner": {
        "name": "activebackup"
    }
}

无论如何都得 nmcli connection up team0 来打开team0,去读取配置文件

利用ansible

使用系统role提供正确的变量,就可以完成任务

[student@workstation ~]$ lab netlink-automation start

Starting netlink-automation exercise.

· Create Ansible project directory............................  SUCCESS
· Download Ansible configuration..............................  SUCCESS
· Download Ansible inventory..................................  SUCCESS
· Configuring eth1 network interface on serverd...............  SUCCESS

[student@workstation ~]$ 

肯定需要这个角色包
[student@workstation ~]$ sudo yum -y install rhel-system-roles

准备剧本
[student@workstation ~]$ ll
total 0
drwxr-xr-x. 2 student student 42 Sep  3 22:10 netlink-automation
drwxr-xr-x. 2 student student 42 Aug 29 08:02 servicemgmt-automation
[student@workstation ~]$ cd netlink-automation/
[student@workstation netlink-automation]$ ls
ansible.cfg  inventory
[student@workstation netlink-automation]$ ansible-galaxy list
# /usr/share/ansible/roles
- linux-system-roles.kdump, (unknown version)
- linux-system-roles.network, (unknown version)
- linux-system-roles.postfix, (unknown version)
- linux-system-roles.selinux, (unknown version)
- linux-system-roles.storage, (unknown version)
- linux-system-roles.timesync, (unknown version)

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图1

[root@servera ~]# nmcli device 
DEVICE  TYPE      STATE      CONNECTION         
eth0    ethernet  connected  Wired connection 1 
team0   team      connected  team0              
eth1    ethernet  connected  eth1               
eth2    ethernet  connected  eth2   

[root@servera ~]# teamdctl team0 config dump
{
    "device": "team0",
    "ports": {
        "eth1": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        },
        "eth2": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        }
    },
    "runner": {
        "name": "roundrobin"
    }
}
[root@servera ~]# 

此角色无更改runner的功能,继续更改playbook

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图2

[root@servera ~]# teamdctl team0 config dump
{
    "device": "team0",
    "mcast_rejoin": {
        "count": 1
    },
    "notify_peers": {
        "count": 1
    },
    "ports": {
        "eth1": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        },
        "eth2": {
            "link_watch": {
                "name": "ethtool"
            }
        }
    },
    "runner": {
        "name": "activebackup"
    }
}
[root@servera ~]# 

成功

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图3

但是这无法体现幂等性,最后三条command总会重复执行,没有意义。增加判断条件

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图4

第一个is not defined 首先判断这个接口是否存在,不存在执行roles
第二个not in 判断这个是否有activebackup 有则改,无则跳过

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图5

反复执行不会有多余的操作

bond比team更适应交换机

管理DNS

DNS的层级结构
树状结构
.代表根域-->每个域都有对应的DNS服务器:域名->IP
根域服务器: 13台 (iPv4)
根域下面就是二级子域 .com .cn .net .edu .gov 域名
举个例子
lab.example.com(三级)是example.com(二级)的子域
example.com是.com(一级)的子域
rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图6
fqdn:完全合格名称 --> ip (能被dns解析)
主机名得与fqdn区分

DNS服务器到底保存了什么内容

1: DNS服务器:到底保存了什么内容,DNS的工作原理

lab.example.com DNSserver  Servera

1>  授权的子域,以及子域的DNS服务

​     ocp4.lab.example.com是lab.example.com的子域

​     master01.ocp4.lab.example.com  

​     你必须在lab.example.com 的DNS服务器配置ocp4.lab.example.com 的DNS服务器在serverb.lab.example.com.

也就是上级域,必须要有下级域名的DNS服务器

2>  该域下所有的FQDN的解析也成为区域配置文件

servera.lab.example.com 172.25.250.10

serverb.lab.example.com 172.25.250.11

3> 根域服务器的IP地址

DNS解析过程分为: 一个是递归

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图7

这是在没有DNS缓存服务器的情况下,去找根域。很麻烦

rh358 003 ansible部署双网卡绑定  DNS原理 bind正向解析插图8
有缓存服务器的情况下就不需要找根域,更有效率

实验:通过bind实现正向,方向,转发,主从,各种资源记录 (未完结)

1>  安装软件包: serverb
[root@serverb ~]# yum install -y bind

2> 修改配置文件
[root@serverb ~]# vim /etc/named.conf 配置文件路径
//代表注释
options {
       // listen-on port 53 { 127.0.0.1; };监听的端口是53:
        DNS既监听UDP53还有TCP53,TCP53端口用于主从同步用的UDP53用于查询的
         listen-on port 53 { 172.25.250.11;127.0.0.1; };
        directory       "/var/named"; 类似于定于了一个/目录,数据文件都放哪里
        dump-file       "/var/named/data/cache_dump.db";备份文件
        statistics-file "/var/named/data/named_stats.txt"; 统计
        memstatistics-file "/var/named/data/named_mem_stats.txt";
        secroots-file   "/var/named/data/named.secroots";
        recursing-file  "/var/named/data/named.recursing";
      //  allow-query     { localhost; }; 允许谁来查寻
          allow-query     { 172.25.250.0/24; };
          recursion yes; 是否允许递归查询。如果你的DNS服务仅仅是解析自己域内FQDN,则不需要递归,如果需要解析其他域内的FQDN则需要配置递归,设置为YES
            dnssec-enable no;
           dnssec-validation no;   有关安全的 秘钥之类

logging {
        channel default_debug {
                file "data/named.run";->/var/named/data/named.run
                severity dynamic;    #日志路径
        };
};

3> 配置区域配置文件zone...区域配置文件,指定的是该域内所有资源解析的文件FQND-->ip    (重点,fqdn的对应关系)
分为正向解析区域配置文件,反向解析区域配置文件
正向区域配置文件:

zone "." IN {
        type hint;
        file "named.ca";
};
根域地址

zone "example.com" IN {
      type  master ;  
      file "example.com" 该域:example.com的区域配置文件在/var/named/example.com
};

4> 准备这个区域配置文件
[root@serverb ~]# cp /var/named/named.empty /var/named/example.com
[root@serverb ~]# chown root:named  /var/named/example.com 属组一定要是这个named这个组
[root@serverb ~]# chmod 640 /var/named/example.com
[root@serverb ~]# ll -lZ /var/named/example.com
-rw-r-----. 1 root named unconfined_u:object_r:named_zone_t:s0 152 Sep  3 19:40 /var/named/example.com

[root@serverb ~]# vim /var/named/example.com
$TTL 3H   # 缓存时间        # @代表本域(example.com)   # SOA 记录表示此域名的权威解析服务器地址         从域名到ip记录称之为A记录   soa后面是管理者邮箱   root后面不能是@
@       IN SOA  serverb.example.com. root.serverb.example.com. (
                                        0       ; serial     [改了配置文件这个数字+1 就可以同步]
                                        1D      ; refresh
                                        1H      ; retry
                                        1W      ; expire
                                        3H )    ; minimum
@      IN NS  serverb.example.com.
servera    IN   A  172.25.250.10
serverb    IN   A  172.25.250.11
serverc    IN   A  172.25.250.12
serverd    IN   A  172.25.250.13
kevin   IN CNAME   serverc

5>启动服务,开放防火墙
[root@serverb ~]# systemctl enable  --now  named.service
[root@serverb ~]#
[root@serverb ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent  --add-port=53/tcp
success
[root@serverb ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent  --add-port=53/udp
success
[root@serverb ~]# firewall-cmd --reload

6> 登录servera 
[root@servera ~]# cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Generated by NetworkManager
search lab.example.com example.com
nameserver 172.25.250.11

[root@servera ~]# ping kevin
PING serverc.example.com (172.25.250.12) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from serverc.lab.example.com (172.25.250.12): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.728 ms
64 bytes from serverc.lab.example.com (172.25.250.12): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.733 ms
^C
--- serverc.example.com ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 32ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.728/0.730/0.733/0.027 ms
[root@servera ~]# ping serverc
PING serverc.lab.example.com (172.25.250.12) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from serverc.lab.example.com (172.25.250.12): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.71 ms
^C
--- serverc.lab.example.com ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.709/1.709/1.709/0.000 ms
[root@servera ~]# ping serverd
PING serverd.lab.example.com (172.25.250.13) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from serverd.lab.example.com (172.25.250.13): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=3.95 ms
64 bytes from serverd.lab.example.com (172.25.250.13): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.16 ms
^C
--- serverd.lab.example.com ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 3ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.163/2.557/3.952/1.395 ms

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