ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg ansible-adhoc ansible原理

ssh用普通用户连接被控端

配置主机清单 (/etc/hosts域名解析为前提)

[root@workstation ansible]# cat hosts 
servera
serverb
[root@workstation ansible]# pwd
/etc/ansible
[root@workstation ansible]# 

建立免密

[root@workstation ansible]# ssh-keygen 

使被控端创建用户

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'useradd ansible' -k
SSH password: 
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'echo redhat | passwd --stdin ansible' -k
SSH password: 
serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
Changing password for user ansible.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
Changing password for user ansible.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

配置与ansible用户的免密

[root@workstation ansible]# ssh-copy-id ansible@servera
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
ansible@servera's password: 

Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'ansible@servera'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

[root@workstation ansible]# ssh-copy-id ansible@serverb
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
ansible@serverb's password: 

Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'ansible@serverb'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

[root@workstation ansible]# 

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'pwd' -k -u ansible
SSH password: 
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/home/ansible
serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/home/ansible
[root@workstation ansible]# 

默认改为ansible用户连接
ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'pwd'
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/home/ansible
serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/home/ansible
[root@workstation ansible]# 

设置被控端提权

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'echo ansible ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL > /etc/sudoers.d/ansible' -u root -k 
SSH password: 
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

ansible这边并没有提权

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'id'
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
uid=1001(ansible) gid=1001(ansible) groups=1001(ansible) context=unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
uid=1000(ansible) gid=1000(ansible) groups=1000(ansible) context=unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
[root@workstation ansible]# 

修改配置文件

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图1

成功提权

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'id'
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root) context=unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root) context=unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
[root@workstation ansible]# 

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible all -m shell -a 'pwd'
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/home/ansible
serverb | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/home/ansible
[root@workstation ansible]# 

定义inventory

列出当前选择的主机

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible servera --list-hosts
hosts (1):
    servera

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible servera,serverb --list-hosts
hosts (2):
    servera
    serverb

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible httpd,mysql --list-hosts
hosts (3):
    servera
    serverb
    abc
[root@workstation ansible]# cat hosts 
[httpd]
servera
serverb

[mysql]
abc

[root@workstation ansible]# 
这里hosts为ini格式和那个yum差不多
不想加入组的用户得写在第一排。

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible ungrouped --list-hosts
hosts (1):
    servere
[root@workstation ansible]# head -n3 hosts 
servere
[httpd]
servera
[root@workstation ansible]# 
servere不属于任何组

组包含组

[root@workstation ansible]# vi hosts 
[root@workstation ansible]# ansible web --list-hosts
hosts (3):
    servera
    serverb
    abc
[root@workstation ansible]# cat hosts 
servere
[httpd]
servera
serverb

[mysql]
abc

[web:children]
httpd
mysql    #那么这里就只能写组,不可以写主机
[root@workstation ansible]# 

[web:children]
httpd
mysql 
[web]
fox        #这样才可以添加fox主机
ansible选择了两边主机,ansible会自动去重。

支持通配符
组和主机都通配

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible 'server*' --list-hosts
hosts (3):
    servere
    servera
    serverb
[root@workstation ansible]# 

hosts也可以连续定义

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图2

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible 'server*,!*server1' --list-hosts
hosts (14):
    server2
    server3
    server4
    server5
    server6
    server7
    server8
    server9
    server10
    server11
    server12
    servere
    servera
    serverb
[root@workstation ansible]# 

唯独不要server1

[root@workstation ansible]# ansible 'httpd,&mysql' --list-hosts
hosts (1):
    server10
[root@workstation ansible]# cat hosts 
server[1:12]

servere
[httpd]
servera
serverb
server10
[mysql]
abc
server10
[web:children]
httpd
mysql
[root@workstation ansible]# 

既属于web又属于httpd

boston,londor,&prod,!lb
在boston与londor同时也在prod但是去除lb

正则表达式
ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图3
有s或h字母 尾巴为example.com的
没带^就不是开头为s或h

另外指定新的主机清单。读新的hosts

[root@workstation ansible]# echo  servera  > file
[root@workstation ansible]# ansible servera -i file --list-hosts
  hosts (1):
    servera
[root@workstation ansible]# 

有关ansible常用参数
-m 指定模块
-a 指定模块参数
-u 指定被控端的连接用户2
-k 密码验证,不指定就是秘钥验证
-i 指定主机清单 ansible servera -i file --list-hosts
--list-hosts 列出所选的主机

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图4

yaml格式定义主机清单

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图5

比较完整的yaml写法
ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图6

ini格式转换yaml
ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图7

yaml语法对程序更友好

配置文件

默认配置文件位置
[root@workstation ansible]# pwd
/etc/ansible
[root@workstation ansible]# ls
ansible.cfg  file  file.yaml  hosts  roles
[root@workstation ansible]# 

配置文件有优先级读取顺序
ANSIBLE_CONFIG = /tmp/ansible.cfg
当前目录下的ansible.cfg  ./
家目录   ~/.ansible.cfg
/etc/ansible/ansible.cfg

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图8

更改运行主机清单的路径

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图9

ansible.cfg的参数

inventory      = ./hosts
#library        = /usr/share/my_modules/
#module_utils   = /usr/share/my_module_utils/
#remote_tmp     = ~/.ansible/tmp
#local_tmp      = ~/.ansible/tmp
#plugin_filters_cfg = /etc/ansible/plugin_filters.yml
#forks          = 5
inventory      = ./hosts
#library        = /usr/share/my_modules/
#module_utils   = /usr/share/my_module_utils/
#remote_tmp     = ~/.ansible/tmp   被控端路径  py的临时运行目录的位置
#local_tmp      = ~/.ansible/tmp   主控端临时存储目录
#plugin_filters_cfg = /etc/ansible/plugin_filters.yml
#forks          = 5       并发数  一次性连5台,再连5台
#poll_interval  = 15      探测任务执行如何  每15秒探测
#ask_pass      = True    密码验证   -k 默认false
#remote_port    = 22    被控端,端口号
remote_user = ansible    远程主机用什么连
[privilege_escalation]
become=True          要提权
become_method=sudo   
become_user=root     提权用户
become_ask_pass=False   不问提权密码
#host_key_checking = False     自动接受公钥  (好用)

log_path=/var/log/ansible.log   普通用户得改这个路径
普通用户写不了var/log
module_name = command  不指定模块默认为command模块

ad-hoc指令

官方文档
https://docs.ansible.com/

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图10
搜索模块时搜索builtin 内置模块

shell模块
优点:功能强大
缺点:无法保证幂等性
ansible servera -m shell -a '命令'

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图11
来自官方文档的教诲(狗头)

[root@workstation maosible]# ansible  servera -m shell -a 'chdir=/tmp pwd'
servera | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
/tmp
[root@workstation maosible]# 

[root@workstation maosible]# ansible  servera -m shell -a 'creates=/tmp/file pwd'
servera | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
skipped, since /tmp/file exists
[root@workstation maosible]# 
文件存在,则不执行pwd

removes相反

command模块为默认模块
ansible servera -a 'pwd'
command不允许 >

raw模块就是被削弱的shell

script模块
让脚本在被控端执行
这个脚本可以不需要执行权限,因为他会被解析成py文件,被控端通过执行py文件执行脚本

其他常用模块

authorized_keys 分发公钥

[root@workstation .ssh]# ansible-galaxy collection install ansible.posix -vvv
ansible-galaxy 2.9.11
config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
configured module search path = ['/root/.ansible/plugins/modules', '/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python3.6/site-packages/ansible
executable location = /usr/bin/ansible-galaxy
python version = 3.6.8 (default, Mar 18 2021, 08:58:41) [GCC 8.4.1 20200928 (Red Hat 8.4.1-1)]
Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file
Process install dependency map
Opened /root/.ansible/galaxy_token
Processing requirement collection 'ansible.posix'
Collection 'ansible.posix' obtained from server default https://galaxy.ansible.com/api/
Starting collection install process
Installing 'ansible.posix:1.4.0' to '/root/.ansible/collections/ansible_collections/ansible/posix'
Downloading https://galaxy.ansible.com/download/ansible-posix-1.4.0.tar.gz to /root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-local-5179_oikgerz/tmpqxvizmuo

2.9没有此内置模块
那么使用galaxy从网上下载

通过官方文档发现名字为ansible.posix.authorized_key
ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图12

[root@workstation modules]#  ansible all -m ansible.posix.authorized_key -a 'user=root key="ssh-rsa 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 root@workstation" state=present'

参考文档:https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/collections/ansible/posix/authorized_key_module.html

可是2.9拥有authorized_key

[root@workstation modules]#  ansible all -m authorized_key -a 'user=root key="ssh-rsa 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 root@workstation" state=present'

所以没必要去下载ansible.posix.authorized_key
但是可以显示出参考文档的重要性
那么遇到问题,可以直接去寻找官方的英文文档,会更有效率。

以下为转载

https://cloud.tencent.com/developer/news/327468

ansible原理

Ansible 是一个模型驱动的配置管理器,支持多节点发布、远程任务执行。默认使用 SSH 进行远程连接。无需在被管理节点上安装附加软件,可使用各种编程语言进行扩展。

一、Ansible基本架构

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图13
上图为ansible的基本架构,从上图可以了解到其由以下部分组成:

核心:ansible

核心模块(Core Modules):这些都是ansible自带的模块

扩展模块(Custom Modules):如果核心模块不足以完成某种功能,可以添加扩展模块

插件(Plugins):完成模块功能的补充

剧本(Playbooks):ansible的任务配置文件,将多个任务定义在剧本中,由ansible自动执行

连接插件(Connectior Plugins):ansible基于连接插件连接到各个主机上,虽然ansible是使用ssh连接到各个主机的,但是它还支持其他的连接方法,所以需要有连接插件

主机群(Host Inventory):定义ansible管理的主机

二、Ansible工作原理

ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图14
ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg  ansible-adhoc ansible原理插图15

以上是从网上找到的两张ansible工作原理图,两张图基本都是在架构图的基本上进行的拓展。从上面的图上可以了解到:

1、管理端支持local 、ssh、zeromq 三种方式连接被管理端,默认使用基于ssh的连接---这部分对应基本架构图中的连接模块;

2、可以按应用类型等方式进行Host Inventory(主机群)分类,管理节点通过各类模块实现相应的操作---单个模块,单条命令的批量执行,我们可以称之为ad-hoc;

3、管理节点可以通过playbooks 实现多个task的集合实现一类功能,如web服务的安装部署、数据库服务器的批量备份等。playbooks我们可以简单的理解为,系统通过组合多条ad-hoc操作的配置文件 。

文章来源于互联网:ansible 002 连接被控端 inventory ansible.cfg ansible-adhoc ansible原理

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