k8s-Pod基础

制作镜像

第一个pod

搭建Harbor仓库

重启策略

启动命令

pod基本命令

设置环境变量

数据持久化和共享-hostPath

数据持久化和共享-emptyDir

JSON格式编写pod文件

ConfigMap

pod共享宿主机网络

pod的生命周期

pod的生命周期函数

通过环境变量获取pod和container的信息

通过文件挂载获取pod和container的信息

健康检查和服务可用性检查

制作镜像

一个简单的springboot项目

k8s-Pod基础插图k8s-Pod基础插图1

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    modelVersion>4.0.0modelVersion>

    groupId>com.datanggroupId>
    artifactId>dockerdemoartifactId>
    version>1.0-SNAPSHOTversion>

    parent>
        groupId>org.springframework.bootgroupId>
        artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parentartifactId>
        version>2.3.2.RELEASEversion>
    parent>

    properties>
        maven.compiler.source>8maven.compiler.source>
        maven.compiler.target>8maven.compiler.target>
    properties>

    dependencies>
        dependency>
            groupId>org.springframework.bootgroupId>
            artifactId>spring-boot-starter-webartifactId>
        dependency>
    dependencies>

    build>
        plugins>
            plugin>
                groupId>org.springframework.bootgroupId>
                artifactId>spring-boot-maven-pluginartifactId>
            plugin>
        plugins>
    build>
project>

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k8s-Pod基础插图k8s-Pod基础插图1

package com.datang.dockerdemo.controller;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {
    public static void main(String[]args){
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class,args);
    }
}

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k8s-Pod基础插图k8s-Pod基础插图1

package com.datang.dockerdemo.controller;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;

@RestController
public class Rest {
    @GetMapping("test")
    public String test() {
        String s = "~~~~~~~~~~";
        try {
            InetAddress localHost = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
            String hostAddress = localHost.getHostAddress();
            String canonicalHostName = localHost.getCanonicalHostName();
            String hostName = localHost.getHostName();
            s = s + "--------"+hostAddress + "-------"+ hostName;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
        return s;
    }
}

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dockerfile文件

基于 centos7作为基础镜像,然后再里边yum一个vim插件,进入/usr/local目录,创建test目录,将虚拟机上的jar包和jdk压缩包拷贝到镜像内的/usr/local/test里,

进入/usr/local/test,解压jdk,设置jdk环境变量,执行jar包。这个dockerfile就做了这些事。需要注意的是,设置环境变量时一定要看自己解压好的jdk目录名

FROM centos:7

RUN yum install -y vim

WORKDIR /usr/local

RUN mkdir test 

COPY dockerdemo.jar /usr/local/test
COPY jdk8.tar.gz /usr/local/test

WORKDIR /usr/local/test
RUN tar -zxvf jdk8.tar.gz

ENV JAVA_HOME /usr/local/test/jdk1.8.0_291
ENV PATH $JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH

ENTRYPOINT ["java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图2

(master节点)在这个目录下执行 docker build -t myapp . (注意最后边有个  . )

测试镜像是否可用

docker run -itd -p 9999:8080 myapp

k8s-Pod基础插图3

第一个pod

编写pod.yaml(master节点)

apiVersion: v1 #版本号
kind: Pod #类型
metadata:
  name: poddemo1 #pod名称
  labels: # 标签
    k1: v1 #key和value任意都可以
spec: #容器内容
  containers: #设置容器
    - name: myapp01 #容器名
      image: myapp #依赖docker镜像
      imagePullPolicy: Never #镜像拉去策略 Never表示只从本地拉去镜像,Always表示每次都尝试拉去镜像,IfNotPresent如果本地不存在则拉去
      ports: #端口策略
        - name: tomcatport #端口名
          containerPort: 8080 #容器需要监听的端口

运行命令 kubectl create -f poddemo1.yaml

查看 pod是否创建成功 kubectl get pod

k8s-Pod基础插图4

报错说找不到镜像,原因是创建的pod分发到了node节点,但是node节点是真的没有这个image

k8s-Pod基础插图5

将镜像导入到node后重新运行发现pod状态一直不对。

k8s-Pod基础插图6

查看pod状态

kubectl describe pod poddemo1

k8s-Pod基础插图7

发现这个错误提示说Java path 一拍头想起来了,镜像里那个jdk解压后的文件夹名字肯定写错了。重新打包镜像后重新创建成功。

k8s-Pod基础插图8

通过查看pod的IP

kubectl get pod -o wide

k8s-Pod基础插图9

然后在任何一个k8s节点上都可以访问

k8s-Pod基础插图10

搭建Harbor仓库

上边的例子缺点就在于,master节点上有的镜像node节点没有,需要手动上传,这是不自动的。我们创建一个自己的harbor仓库,就可以处理这个问题。我这边的harbor仓库是按照下边的博客搭建的,流程是没问题的。

https://blog.csdn.net/moyuanbomo/article/details/123378825

这里说几个需要注意的:

1 搭建好的harbor仓库在创建项目时一定要选择公开的,否则还需要在额外设置k8s。

k8s-Pod基础插图11

2 k8s中的每台主机都要修改daemon.json然后依次登录一下harbor仓库。docker login ip:port

k8s-Pod基础插图12

3 使用docker pull 拉镜像时需要指定全名例如 docker pull 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1

k8s-Pod基础插图13

4 所以我们的pod.yaml也要修改为全路径,另外镜像拉去策略也要修改为 IfNotPresent 如果本地不存在则拉去。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo1
  labels:
    k1: v1
spec:
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080

k8s-Pod基础插图14

k8s-Pod基础插图15

重启策略

创建一个pod,仅仅使用一个ubuntu基础镜像,启动后执行 echo打印两个字符串,restartPolicy设置为OnFailure此时pod执行完就会结束。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo1
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ['/bin/echo','aaaaa','bbbbb']    

k8s-Pod基础插图16

k8s-Pod基础插图17

当我们修改restartPolicy为Always时则会重复启动pod。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo1
spec:
  restartPolicy: Always #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ['date']    

k8s-Pod基础插图18

k8s-Pod基础插图19

启动命令

dockerfile的最后一行描述了容器创建后需要启动的命令,现在我们把这一行删掉,转移到pod.yaml中

FROM centos:7 

RUN yum install -y vim

WORKDIR /usr/local

RUN mkdir test 

COPY dockerdemo.jar /usr/local/test
COPY jdk8.tar.gz /usr/local/test

WORKDIR /usr/local/test
RUN tar -zxvf jdk8.tar.gz

ENV JAVA_HOME /usr/local/test/jdk1.8.0_333
ENV PATH $JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo1
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图20

除此之外还可以设置args作为command的参数。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo1
spec:
  restartPolicy: Always #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ['/bin/echo']    
      args: ['aaa','bbb','cccc']

k8s-Pod基础插图21

command和args两个参数对应docker中的ENTRYPOINT和CMD对应。两者之间有互斥的关系,具体如下。

k8s-Pod基础插图22

pod基本命令

创建pod:kubectl create -f xxx.yaml

查询全部pod:kubectl get pod

k8s-Pod基础插图23

name:pod名称。 ready:pod的准备状态,左边数字是pod中就绪容器的总数目,右边是应有容器。status:pod的状态。restarts:pod的重启次数。age:pod的运行时间。

查询单个pod:kubectl get pod podname

[root@k8s-master1 home]# kubectl get pod poddemo1
NAME       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
poddemo1   1/1     Running   0          10m

查询pod完整信息:kubectl get pod podname --output json

k8s-Pod基础插图k8s-Pod基础插图1

{
    "apiVersion": "v1",
    "kind": "Pod",
    "metadata": {
        "creationTimestamp": "2022-08-17T14:19:12Z",
        "name": "poddemo1",
        "namespace": "default",
        "resourceVersion": "44895",
        "selfLink": "/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods/poddemo1",
        "uid": "36a6fef7-38bb-46db-afc2-e8ee66cc1b49"
    },
    "spec": {
        "containers": [
            {
                "command": [
                    "nohup",
                    "java",
                    "-jar",
                    "/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar",
                    "u0026"
                ],
                "image": "192.168.239.134:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1",
                "imagePullPolicy": "IfNotPresent",
                "name": "myapp01",
                "ports": [
                    {
                        "containerPort": 8080,
                        "name": "tomcatport",
                        "protocol": "TCP"
                    }
                ],
                "resources": {},
                "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",
                "terminationMessagePolicy": "File",
                "volumeMounts": [
                    {
                        "mountPath": "/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount",
                        "name": "default-token-zlxv7",
                        "readOnly": true
                    }
                ]
            }
        ],
        "dnsPolicy": "ClusterFirst",
        "enableServiceLinks": true,
        "nodeName": "k8s-node1",
        "priority": 0,
        "restartPolicy": "Never",
        "schedulerName": "default-scheduler",
        "securityContext": {},
        "serviceAccount": "default",
        "serviceAccountName": "default",
        "terminationGracePeriodSeconds": 30,
        "tolerations": [
            {
                "effect": "NoExecute",
                "key": "node.kubernetes.io/not-ready",
                "operator": "Exists",
                "tolerationSeconds": 300
            },
            {
                "effect": "NoExecute",
                "key": "node.kubernetes.io/unreachable",
                "operator": "Exists",
                "tolerationSeconds": 300
            }
        ],
        "volumes": [
            {
                "name": "default-token-zlxv7",
                "secret": {
                    "defaultMode": 420,
                    "secretName": "default-token-zlxv7"
                }
            }
        ]
    },
    "status": {
        "conditions": [
            {
                "lastProbeTime": null,
                "lastTransitionTime": "2022-08-17T14:19:12Z",
                "status": "True",
                "type": "Initialized"
            },
            {
                "lastProbeTime": null,
                "lastTransitionTime": "2022-08-17T14:19:16Z",
                "status": "True",
                "type": "Ready"
            },
            {
                "lastProbeTime": null,
                "lastTransitionTime": "2022-08-17T14:19:16Z",
                "status": "True",
                "type": "ContainersReady"
            },
            {
                "lastProbeTime": null,
                "lastTransitionTime": "2022-08-17T14:19:12Z",
                "status": "True",
                "type": "PodScheduled"
            }
        ],
        "containerStatuses": [
            {
                "containerID": "docker://bcd1cdfbbabe194f8574af00672eac2a4e1408245506bb9aa7f4c4b52c613e7e",
                "image": "192.168.239.134:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1",
                "imageID": "docker-pullable://192.168.239.134:9999/myharbor/myapp@sha256:4e6502311b5cd07f3ed6f55d616ff5c0205e441533541bbd91464965dd725929",
                "lastState": {},
                "name": "myapp01",
                "ready": true,
                "restartCount": 0,
                "state": {
                    "running": {
                        "startedAt": "2022-08-17T14:19:15Z"
                    }
                }
            }
        ],
        "hostIP": "192.168.239.135",
        "phase": "Running",
        "podIP": "10.244.1.19",
        "qosClass": "BestEffort",
        "startTime": "2022-08-17T14:19:12Z"
    }
}

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查看pod状态和生命周期事件:kubectl describe pod podname

k8s-Pod基础插图k8s-Pod基础插图1

Name:         poddemo1
Namespace:    default
Priority:     0
Node:         k8s-node1/192.168.239.135
Start Time:   Wed, 17 Aug 2022 22:19:12 +0800
Labels:       none>
Annotations:  none>
Status:       Running
IP:           10.244.1.19
Containers:
  myapp01:
    Container ID:  docker://bcd1cdfbbabe194f8574af00672eac2a4e1408245506bb9aa7f4c4b52c613e7e
    Image:         192.168.239.134:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
    Image ID:      docker-pullable://192.168.239.134:9999/myharbor/myapp@sha256:4e6502311b5cd07f3ed6f55d616ff5c0205e441533541bbd91464965dd725929
    Port:          8080/TCP
    Host Port:     0/TCP
    Command:
      nohup
      java
      -jar
      /usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar
      &
    State:          Running
      Started:      Wed, 17 Aug 2022 22:19:15 +0800
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-zlxv7 (ro)
Conditions:
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True 
  Ready             True 
  ContainersReady   True 
  PodScheduled      True 
Volumes:
  default-token-zlxv7:
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-zlxv7
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  none>
Tolerations:     node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute for 300s
                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute for 300s
Events:
  Type    Reason     Age   From                Message
  ----    ------     ----  ----                -------
  Normal  Scheduled  14m   default-scheduler   Successfully assigned default/poddemo1 to k8s-node1
  Normal  Pulled     14m   kubelet, k8s-node1  Container image "192.168.239.134:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1" already present on machine
  Normal  Created    14m   kubelet, k8s-node1  Created container myapp01
  Normal  Started    14m   kubelet, k8s-node1  Started container myapp01

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删除pod:kubectl delete pod podname

k8s-Pod基础插图24

删除全部pod:kubectl delete pod all

k8s-Pod基础插图25

设置环境变量

创建pod后进入pod中的容器内部,查看环境变量是否生效。

kubectl --namespace=default exec -it poddemo1 --container myapp01 -- sh

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo1
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      env:
        - name: aaaaa
          value: 'ttttttt'
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图26

设置的环境变量还可以获取pod的信息

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo5
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      env:
        - name: aaaaa
          value: 'ttttttt'
        - name: nodename
          valueFrom: 
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        - name: nodenamespace
          valueFrom: 
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace      
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图27

数据持久化和共享-hostPath

hostPath将宿主机的某个目录映射到容器内的目录,容器终止后,宿主机上将保留目录,以及容器内操控的文件。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo6
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: writepod #容器1
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ["bash","-c","echo "aaaaaaa" >> /data/hello.txt"] # 向容器内的/data/hello.txt写入数据
      volumeMounts:
        - name: data1 #对应挂载卷唯一名称
          mountPath: /data #映射到容器内的目录
    - name: readpod #容器2
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ["bash","-c","sleep 10; cat /data/hello.txt"] # 向容器内的/data/hello.txt 读取数据
      volumeMounts:
        - name: data1 #对应挂载卷唯一名称
          mountPath: /data #映射到容器内的目录
  volumes: # 宿主机挂载
    - name: data1 # 挂载卷唯一名称
      hostPath: #类型,其实还有其他的类型,hostPath只是其中一个
        path: /home # 容器内部挂载到的宿主机目录

k8s-Pod基础插图28

虽然容器停止了,但是在node上是可以看到写入的文件的

k8s-Pod基础插图29

看以下配置两个容器的mountPath并没有在同一个目录下,但是依然可以取到文件,这表示最终能让容器间操作同一个目录的地方是 volumeMount.name与volume.name对应。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo6
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: writepod #容器1
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ["bash","-c","echo "aaaaaaa" >> /data/hello.txt"] # 向容器内的/data/hello.txt写入数据
      volumeMounts:
        - name: data1 #对应挂载卷唯一名称
          mountPath: /data #映射到容器内的目录
    - name: readpod #容器2
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ["bash","-c","sleep 10; cat /tmp/hello.txt"] # 向容器内的/tmp/hello.txt 读取数据
      volumeMounts:
        - name: data1 #对应挂载卷唯一名称
          mountPath: /tmp #映射到容器内的目录
  volumes: # 宿主机挂载
    - name: data1 # 挂载卷唯一名称
      hostPath: #类型,其实还有其他的类型,hostPath只是其中一个
        path: /home # 容器内部挂载到的宿主机目录

k8s-Pod基础插图30

k8s-Pod基础插图31

数据持久化和共享-emptyDir

将数据临时写入磁盘,当pod停止后卷数据不会保留。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo8
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: writepod #容器1
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ["bash","-c","echo "aaaaaaa" >> /data/hello.txt"] # 向容器内的/data/hello.txt写入数据
      volumeMounts:
        - name: data1 #对应挂载卷唯一名称
          mountPath: /data #映射到容器内的目录
    - name: readpod #容器2
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ["bash","-c","sleep 10; cat /data/hello.txt"] # 向容器内的/data/hello.txt 读取数据
      volumeMounts:
        - name: data1 #对应挂载卷唯一名称
          mountPath: /data #映射到容器内的目录
  volumes: # 宿主机挂载
    - name: data1 # 挂载卷唯一名称
      emptyDir: #类型,其实还有其他的类型,emptyDir只是其中一个

k8s-Pod基础插图32

JSON格式编写pod文件

{
  "apiVersion": "v1",
  "kind": "Pod",
  "metadata": {
    "name": "poddemo7"
  },
  "spec": {
    "restartPolicy": "OnFailure",
    "containers": [
      {
        "name": "myapp01",
        "image": "ubuntu:14.04",
        "imagePullPolicy": "IfNotPresent",
        "command": [
          "/bin/echo",
          "aaaaa",
          "bbbbb"
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}

k8s-Pod基础插图33

ConfigMap

configMap供容器使用的典型方法为:1 生成容器内的环境变量。 2 设置容器启动命令的启动参数(需要设置为环境变量)。3 以Volume的形式挂载为容器内的文件或目录。

使用yaml的方式创建ConfigMap,定义了两个key,value。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: configmap1
data:
  key1: value1
  key2: value2

k8s-Pod基础插图34

通过环境变量的方式使用ConfigMap,先创建configmap设置两个key,value,然后再pod中通过configMapKeyRef引用,这种引用方式环境变量的名称是env.name。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: configmap1
data:
  key1: value1
  key2: value2
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo5
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      env:
        - name: aaaaa #定义环境变量
          value: 'ttttttt'
        - name: nodename #获取pod属性作为环境变量
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        - name: ccccccc
          valueFrom:
            configMapKeyRef:
              name: configmap1
              key: key1
        - name: ddddddd
          valueFrom:
            configMapKeyRef:
              name: configmap1
              key: key2
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图35

使用containers.envFrom可以直接将一个ConfigMap中定义的属性全部映射到环境变量中。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: configmap2
data:
  key1: value1
  key2: value2
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo10
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      env:
        - name: aaaaa #定义环境变量
          value: 'ttttttt'
        - name: nodename #获取pod属性作为环境变量
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
      envFrom:
      - configMapRef:
          name: configmap2
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图36

下面这种配置,在启动参数中使用环境变量,而环境变量是在configmap中声明的。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: configmap2
data:
  key1: value1
  key2: value2
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo11
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: ubuntu:14.04
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      command: ['/bin/sh','-c']    
      args: ["echo ${aaa} ${key1} ${key2}"]
      env:
        - name: aaa
          value: ttttttt
      envFrom:
      - configMapRef:
          name: configmap2     

k8s-Pod基础插图37

将configmap映射到容器内部的文件中。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: configmap3
data:
  key1: '我是一只小青蛙'
  key2: '呱呱呱 呱呱呱'
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo12
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]
      volumeMounts:
      - name: config
        mountPath: /home
  volumes:
  - name: config
    configMap:
      name: configmap3
      items:
      - key: key1
        path: file1
      - key: key2
        path: file2

k8s-Pod基础插图38

如何在应用configmap时不指定item则会给configmap中的每个key生成一个对应的文件。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: configmap4
data:
  key1: '我是一只小青蛙'
  key2: '呱呱呱 呱呱呱'
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo13
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]
      volumeMounts:
      - name: config
        mountPath: /home
  volumes:
  - name: config
    configMap:
      name: configmap4

k8s-Pod基础插图39

pod共享宿主机网络

pod中所有容器网络都是共享的,一个pod中所有的容器中的网络都是一致的,他们能够互相通过localhost访问彼此。默认的每个pod都有属于自己的podip,k8s集群内可以访问任意podip但外网无法访问

podip。但也可以直接设置pod为Host网络模式,这样pod中的所有容器将会直接暴露到外部系统。通过spec.hostNetwork设置。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo14
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  hostNetwork: true
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]

k8s-Pod基础插图40

k8s-Pod基础插图41

直接将pod映射到Host最大的弊端是,如果同时启动多个容器,且容器内的端口一致,则只有一个会启动成功,剩下则会报以下错误。

Warning  FailedScheduling  35s (x2 over 35s)  default-scheduler  0/2 nodes are available: 1 node(s) didn't have free ports for the requested pod ports, 1 node(s) had taints that the pod didn't tolerate.

pod的生命周期

pod的生命周期可以简单描述为:首先pod被创建,紧接着pod被调度到Node进行部署运行。Pod是非常忠诚的,一旦被分配到Node后,就不会离开这个Node

直到它被删除,生命周期完结。

pod的生命周期也就是pod的状态值

pending:API Server 已经创建该Pod,但在Pod内还有一个或多个容器的镜像没有创建,包括正在下载镜像的过程。

running:pod内所有的容器均已创建,且至少有一个容器处于运行状态,正在启动状态或正在重启状态。

succeeded:pod内所有容器均成功退出,且不会重启。

failed:pod内容器均已退出,但至少有一个容器为退出失败状态。

unknown:由于某种原因无法获取该pod的状态,可能由于网络通信不畅通导致。

k8s-Pod基础插图42

pod的生命周期函数

pod中的容器有两个生命周期函数,一个在容器创建成功后,一个在终止前。可选的操作有执行命令行或者发送http请求。下边实例在创建容器后复制容器内的jar包,终止容器后发送一个get请求,地址是我本地启动的一个项目。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo17
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]
      lifecycle: #声明周期钩子函数
        postStart: #容器创建成功后,调用该回调函数
          exec: #回调有两种做法 exec 和 http
            command:
              - "cp"
              - "/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar"
              - "copyapp"
        preStop: #在容器被终止前调用该回调函数
          httpGet:
            host: 192.168.0.100
            path: /test
            port: 8080
            scheme: HTTP

k8s-Pod基础插图43

k8s-Pod基础插图44

通过环境变量获取pod和container的信息

需要注意获取pod信息和container信息使用的方式不同。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo18
  labels:
    labels1: labls111
    labels2: labls222
  annotations:
    anno1: anno11
    anno2: anno22
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]
      env:
        - name: aaa
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name # pod名称
        - name: bbb
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace # pod所在的命名空间名称     
        - name: ccc
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.uid # pod的UID  
        - name: ddd
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.labels['labels1'] # pod的label 
        - name: eee
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.labels['labels2'] # pod的label   
        - name: fff
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.annotations['anno1'] # pod的annotation 
        - name: ggg
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.annotations['anno2'] # pod的annotation    
        - name: hhh
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: status.podIP # pod的IP地址 
        - name: iii
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: spec.serviceAccountName # pod使用的serviceAccount名称   
        - name: jjj
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: spec.nodeName # pod所在node的名称
        - name: kkk
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: status.hostIP # pod所在node的ip地址        
        - name: AAA #以下为容器内的信息
          valueFrom:
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: requests.cpu #CPU Request
        - name: BBB
          valueFrom:
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: limits.cpu #CPU Limit
        - name: CCC
          valueFrom:
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: requests.memory # Memory Request
        - name: DDD
          valueFrom:
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: limits.memory   # MemoryLimit   

k8s-Pod基础插图45

通过文件挂载获取pod和container的信息

需要注意获取pod信息和container信息使用的方式不同。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo19
  labels:
    labels1: labls111
    labels2: labls222
  annotations:
    anno1: anno11
    anno2: anno22
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]
      volumeMounts:
        - name: podinfo
          mountPath: /home
  volumes:
    - name: podinfo
      downwardAPI:
        items:
          - path: "aaa"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
          - path: "bbb"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace  
          - path: "ccc"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.uid
          - path: "ddd"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.labels['labels1']
          - path: "eee"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.labels['labels2']    
          - path: "fff"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.annotations['anno1']    
          - path: "ggg"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.annotations['anno2']
          - path: "AAA"
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: requests.cpu
          - path: "BBB"
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: limits.cpu
          - path: "CCC"
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: requests.memory    
          - path: "DDD"
            resourceFieldRef:
              containerName: myapp01
              resource: limits.memory    
              
              
              
              

k8s-Pod基础插图46

健康检查和服务可用性检查

LivenessProbe探针:用于判断容器是否存活(running状态),如果LivenessProbe探针探测到容器不健康,则kubectl将杀掉该容器,并根据容器的重启策略做相应的处理。如果一个容器不包含LivenessProbe探针

那么kubelet认为该容器的LivenessProbe探针返回的值永远是Success。

ReadinessProbe探针:用于判断容器服务是否可用(Ready状态),达到Ready状态的pod才可以接收请求。对于被Service管理的pod,service与Pod Endpoint的关联关系也将基于Pod是否Ready进行设置。

如果在运行过程中Ready状态变成FALSE,则系统自动将其从Service的后端Endpoint列表中隔离出去,后续再把回复到Ready状态的Pod加回到后端Endpoint列表。这样保证客户端在访问Service时不回被转发

到服务不可用的Pod实例上。

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: poddemo20
spec:
  restartPolicy: OnFailure #Always 表示pod一旦停止就会立刻重启 OnFailure 表示容器正常退出不重启,正常退出码是0,Never 表示发送退出报告给master但是不重启
  containers:
    - name: myapp01
      image: 192.168.180.129:9999/myharbor/myapp:v1
      imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      ports:
        - name: tomcatport
          containerPort: 8080
      command: ["nohup","java","-jar","/usr/local/test/dockerdemo.jar","&"]
      livenessProbe:
        httpGet:
          host: 192.168.43.4
          path: /test1
          port: 8080
          scheme: HTTP
        initialDelaySeconds: 5 #启动活动或准备就绪探测之前容器启动后的秒数
        periodSeconds: 3 #执行探测的频率(以秒为单位)。默认为10秒。最小值为1。
        timeoutSeconds: 2 #探测超时的秒数。默认为1秒。最小值为1
        failureThreshold: 3 #在存活探针重新启动容器之前允许探针失败的次数(或就绪探针将pod标记为不可用)。
        successThreshold: 1 #探针在开始失败后必须报告成功的次数,以便重置探测过程。
      readinessProbe:
        httpGet:
          host: 192.168.43.4
          path: /test2
          port: 8080
          scheme: HTTP
        initialDelaySeconds: 5
        periodSeconds: 3
        timeoutSeconds: 2
        failureThreshold: 3
        successThreshold: 1   
        
        

两种探针都支持三种检测方式。

ExecAction:在容器中执行指定的命令进行检测,当命令执行成功(返回码为0),检测成功。

exec:
  command:
  - cat
  - /tmp/health

TCPSocketAction:对于容器中的指定TCP端口进行检测,当TCP端口被占用,检测成功。

tcpSocket:
  port: 8080

HTTPGetAction:发生一个HTTP请求,当返回码介于200-400之间,检测成功。

httpGet:
  path: /healthz
  port: 8080

 

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