腾讯云服务器安装rabbitmq及简单测试记录

一、安装

近期对消息队列的学习让我对消息中间件产生了兴趣,而作为消息队列的使用的rabbitmq,就是我学习中间件的第一步。

rabbitmq和erlang的安装

安装之前先检查环境:

[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# cat /proc/version
Linux version 3.10.0-1160.66.1.el7.x86_64 (mockbuild@kbuilder.bsys.centos.org) (gcc version 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-44) (GCC) ) #1 SMP Wed May 18 16:02:34 UTC 2022

rabbitmq是基于Erlang语言编写的消息中间件,所以安装rabbitmq之前还需要安装erlang作为支撑
我们可以先把需要安装的包给准备好(要说明的是我安装的是centos7对应版本的rpm包)
erlang语言rpm包下载入口
腾讯云服务器安装rabbitmq及简单测试记录插图

如上找到el7对应的x86_64,因为我的云服务器是centos7的x86架构

rabbitmq的rpm包下载入口
腾讯云服务器安装rabbitmq及简单测试记录插图1

如上下载压缩包,然后上传至云服务器,再进行安装

[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# ls
erlang-23.3.4.8-1.el7.x86_64.rpm  rabbitmq-server-3.10.7-1.suse.noarch.rpm
#安装erlang的依赖
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# yum install socat
......
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : socat-1.7.3.2-2.el7.x86_64                                               1/1
  Verifying  : socat-1.7.3.2-2.el7.x86_64                                               1/1

Installed:
  socat.x86_64 0:1.7.3.2-2.el7

Complete!
#rpm安装前面下载的两个包
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rpm -ivh erlang-23.3.4.8-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
......
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rpm -ivh rabbitmq-server-3.10.7-1.suse.noarch.rpm
......

这就完成了安装了。

当然除了上面的方式外也可以直接在云服务器上面操作

[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# wget https://github.com/rabbitmq/erlang-rpm/releases/download/v23.3.4.8/erlang-23.3.4.8-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
......
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# wget https://github.com/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-server/releases/download/v3.10.7/rabbitmq-server-3.10.7-1.suse.noarch.rpm
......
#上面两个包的下载url是我从对应地址复制,然后直接用来wget的,不代表url一直不变动,所以还是要自己去复制
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# ls
erlang-23.3.4.8-1.el7.x86_64.rpm  rabbitmq-server-3.10.7-1.suse.noarch.rpm
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# yum install socat
......
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : socat-1.7.3.2-2.el7.x86_64                                               1/1
  Verifying  : socat-1.7.3.2-2.el7.x86_64                                               1/1

Installed:
  socat.x86_64 0:1.7.3.2-2.el7

Complete!
#rpm安装前面下载的两个包
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rpm -ivh erlang-23.3.4.8-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
......
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rpm -ivh rabbitmq-server-3.10.7-1.suse.noarch.rpm
......

二、开启服务

启动服务并设置开机自启

[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# systemctl start rabbitmq-server
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# systemctl enable rabbitmq-server
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/rabbitmq-server.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/rabbitmq-server.service.
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# systemctl status rabbitmq-server
● rabbitmq-server.service - RabbitMQ broker
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/rabbitmq-server.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2022-08-16 10:58:38 CST; 1min 57s ago
 Main PID: 4261 (beam.smp)
   CGroup: /system.slice/rabbitmq-server.service
           ├─4261 /usr/lib64/erlang/erts-11.2.2.7/bin/beam.smp -W w -MBas ageffcbf -MHas ageffcbf -MBlmbcs 512 -MHlmbcs 512 -MMmcs 30 -P 1048576 -t 5000000 -stbt db -zdbbl 128000 -sbwt none -sbwtdcpu non...
           ├─4276 erl_child_setup 32768
           ├─4301 /usr/lib64/erlang/erts-11.2.2.7/bin/epmd -daemon
           ├─4324 inet_gethost 4
           └─4325 inet_gethost 4
......
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rabbitmqctl status
Status of node rabbit@VM-12-4-centos ...
Runtime
......
Plugins

Enabled plugin file: /etc/rabbitmq/enabled_plugins
Enabled plugins:


Data directory

Node data directory: /var/lib/rabbitmq/mnesia/rabbit@VM-12-4-centos
Raft data directory: /var/lib/rabbitmq/mnesia/rabbit@VM-12-4-centos/quorum/rabbit@VM-12-4-centos

Config files


Log file(s)

 * /var/log/rabbitmq/rabbit@VM-12-4-centos.log
 * /var/log/rabbitmq/rabbit@VM-12-4-centos_upgrade.log
 * 
......
Listeners

Interface: [::], port: 25672, protocol: clustering, purpose: inter-node and CLI tool communication
Interface: [::], port: 5

上面的status信息非常重要,注意config files字段和log files字段,关于自定义配置和运行日志,这两个字段信息是重点关注对象,然后是开启前台访问和添加访问用户

#添加admin用户配置密码为admin
[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# rabbitmqctl add_user admin admin
Adding user "admin" ...
Done. Don't forget to grant the user permissions to some virtual hosts! See 'rabbitmqctl help set_permissions' to learn more.
# 设置admin用户为管理员
[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# rabbitmqctl set_user_tags admin administrator
Setting tags for user "admin" to [administrator] ...
# 启用网页后台管理插件
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management
Enabling plugins on node rabbit@VM-12-4-centos:
rabbitmq_management
The following plugins have been configured:
  rabbitmq_management
  rabbitmq_management_agent
  rabbitmq_web_dispatch
Applying plugin configuration to rabbit@VM-12-4-centos...
The following plugins have been enabled:
  rabbitmq_management
  rabbitmq_management_agent
  rabbitmq_web_dispatch

started 3 plugins.
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rabbitmqctl status
Status of node rabbit@VM-12-4-centos ...
Runtime
......
Listeners

Interface: [::], port: 25672, protocol: clustering, purpose: inter-node and CLI tool communication
Interface: [::], port: 5672, protocol: amqp, purpose: AMQP 0-9-1 and AMQP 1.0
Interface: [::], port: 15672, protocol: http, purpose: HTTP API

上面搞定以后,其实就开启了网页访问功能了,但对于服务器来说,其实还需要开启防火墙的拦截,从上面我们的检车就可以看出来,提供服务的端口为5672端口,即rabbitmq提供给客户端的访问端口,以及15672端口,即后台管理界面ui端口,访问ui的url通常为:http://[ip]:15672/

首先是服务器自身的firewall设置:

# 检查firewalld运行状态和开放端口
[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# firewall-cmd --state
running
[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --list-ports
20/tcp 21/tcp 22/tcp 80/tcp 8888/tcp 39000-40000/tcp 8099/tcp 443/tcp 15672/tcp 5672/tcp

从上面可以看到重要的15672端口和5672端口已经放开了,如果没放开,那就手动开放

[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=15672/tcp
success
[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=5672/tcp
success

firewalld开通了对应端口的访问以后,我们访问前台试试
腾讯云服务器安装rabbitmq及简单测试记录插图2

可以看到访问失败,那我们检测一下端口的连通性

D:UsersUserDesktop>ping x.x.x.x -t

正在 Ping x.x.x.x 具有 32 字节的数据:
来自 x.x.x.x 的回复: 字节=32 时间=13ms TTL=248
来自 x.x.x.x 的回复: 字节=32 时间=13ms TTL=248
来自 x.x.x.x 的回复: 字节=32 时间=13ms TTL=248

x.x.x.x 的 Ping 统计信息:
    数据包: 已发送 = 3,已接收 = 3,丢失 = 0 (0% 丢失),
往返行程的估计时间(以毫秒为单位):
    最短 = 13ms,最长 = 13ms,平均 = 13ms
Control-C
^C
D:UsersUserDesktop>telnet x.x.x.x 15672
正在连接x.x.x.x...无法打开到主机的连接。 在端口 15672: 连接失败

D:UsersUserDesktop>

可以看到,我们的ip访问当然是没问题的,但对应端口的连接是失败的,所以还是缺了配置,而我们用的是腾讯云服务器,所以还需要在控制台上面开放对应端口的访问
腾讯云服务器开放端口访问官方文档
具体就不加赘述了,照着文档来就ok了,插一句:如果确定服务准确开启了,但外部pc无法访问,往往先需要检查对端ip的连通性,然后是对应服务的开启端口的连通性检测,连通性没问题以后就考虑外部pc访问该服务是否兼容。

回归正题,当我们搞定防火墙的问题后,检测连通性,可行后我们重新访问前台服务
腾讯云服务器安装rabbitmq及简单测试记录插图3

可行,输入前面添加的用户和密码就可登录成功
腾讯云服务器安装rabbitmq及简单测试记录插图4

三、python操作rabbitmq

关于rabbitmq的远程服务我们已经开启并确认了可访问了,现在我们用python来操作一下,作为拥有丰富的第三方库和简单易用特性的python,操作mq可以说是特别适合的了。

首先安装操作rabbitmq的第三方库,注意要用python3对应pip,因为目前python2不进行维护了,作为第三方库的pika的安装和使用也是容易出问题的。

# 因为我是在windows下进行的python练习,它的python3对应的各种命令都是pip和python即可
D:UsersUserDesktop>pip install pika
。。。。。。
D:UsersUserDesktop>pip show pika
Name: pika
Version: 1.3.0
Summary: Pika Python AMQP Client Library
Home-page: None
Author: None
Author-email: None
License: BSD-3-Clause
Location: d:softwarepython38libsite-packages
Requires:
Required-by:
D:UsersUserDesktop>python
Python 3.8.3 (tags/v3.8.3:6f8c832, May 13 2020, 22:20:19) [MSC v.1925 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import pika
>>> cred = pika.PlainCredentials('admin', 'admin')
>>> connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(host='x.x.x.x',credentials=cred))
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 1, in 
  File "D:softwarepython38libsite-packagespikaadaptersblocking_connection.py", line 360, in __init__
    self._impl = self._create_connection(parameters, _impl_class)
  File "D:softwarepython38libsite-packagespikaadaptersblocking_connection.py", line 451, in _create_connection
    raise self._reap_last_connection_workflow_error(error)
pika.exceptions.ProbableAccessDeniedError: ConnectionClosedByBroker: (530) "NOT_ALLOWED - access to vhost '/' refused for user 'admin'"

使用python比较重要的一点是学会看报错的堆栈信息,比如上面就说的很清楚了,admin用户没有针对"/"这一vhost的访问权限,所以得添加权限

# centos服务器
[root@VM-12-4-centos ~]# rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p "/" admin ".*" ".*" ".*"
Setting permissions for user "admin" in vhost "/" ...
# 本地PC,承接上面python使用
>>> connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters(host='114.132.160.125',credentials=cred))
>>>

生产者和消费者的rabbitmq实例

生产者和消费者是很典型的设计模式的典型,对于消息系统来说,实现这个设计模式的简单实例作为测试再好不过。

在windows上面新开两个终端,一个作为生产者,一个作为消费者

D:UsersUserDesktop>python
Python 3.8.3 (tags/v3.8.3:6f8c832, May 13 2020, 22:20:19) [MSC v.1925 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> print("生产者")
生产者
>>> import pika
>>> cred = pika.PlainCredentials("admin", "admin")
#进行连接
>>> connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters("x.x.x.x", credentials=cred, heartbear=0))
>>> channel = connection.channel()
# 创建队列
>>> channel.queue_declare(queue='hello')
"])>
# 往队列里面生产一条'test from queue of the rabbitmq'的信息
>>> channel.basic_publish(exchange='', routing_key='hello', body='test from queue of the rabbitmq')
D:UsersUserDesktop>python
Python 3.8.3 (tags/v3.8.3:6f8c832, May 13 2020, 22:20:19) [MSC v.1925 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>
>>>
>>> print("消费者")
消费者
>>> import pika
>>> cred = pika.PlainCredentials("admin", "admin")
>>> connection = pika.BlockingConnection(pika.ConnectionParameters("x.x.x.x", credentials=cred, heartbeat=0))
>>> channel = connection.channel()
>>> def callf(ch, method, properties, mes):
...     print("Got {}".format(mes))
...
>>> print('Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
# 连接上hello通道,并连接处理函数
>>> channel.basic_consume('hello', callf, True)
'ctag1.e2826632074d436284b2b52096ab0dd2'
# 开始消费
>>> channel.start_consuming()
Got b'test from queue of the rabbitmq'

上面的生产消费是一一对应的,生产者调用basic_publish方法往通道里面存放一条信息,消费者持续监听通道,来一条信息就对应调用一次处理函数callf,这就是经典的生产者消费者,这也是最朴素的应用,但实际上的应用环境并不会这么一板一眼,简简单单。

来到后台查看通道,我们可以查看下面信息

[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]# rabbitmqctl list_queues
Timeout: 60.0 seconds ...
Listing queues for vhost / ...
name    messages
hello   0
[root@VM-12-14-centos ~]#

上面就是我的一次关于rabbitmq在腾讯云服务器的配置以及远程调用记录。I'm Jack,over.

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